Maintaining the quality of the soil is of paramount importance to food production and anessential component of sustainable agriculture. Farmers through the ages have recognised theimportance of fertilisers in improving and maintaining soil fertility. Chemical fertilisers havegradually taken over from natural fertilizers as soil maintenance agents with overall impressiveresults. However, using chemical fertilizers has its attendant drawbacks which includeenvironmental pollution especially of surface waters that receive runoffs during rainfalls andironically degradation of the very soil it should improve. This implies chemical fertilisers are nota universal one stop solution to the challenge of improving soil fertility. Human waste due to itsbasic components, which are largely similar to those of chemical fertilizers, offers a promisingalternative as a source of valuable plant nutrients in agriculture. Properly practiced, humanwaste reuse contributes significantly to issues of food production, poverty reduction, sanitation,environmental and public health protection. The issue of social acceptance is one of the severalissues that must be tackled in order to successfully institute the practice of human waste reuse inagriculture. Even if concept and technologies exist, if there is no acceptance there can be nosuccessful practice. This paper looks at and presents the social acceptance of human waste reusein agriculture in some communities in Mali and Nigeria. Results from both countries in thisstudy revealed knowledge of both manure and human excreta use in farming. However, attitudesto human excreta use are mixed and predominantly influenced by traditional and religiousbeliefs.